Best Beauty & Skin Care Products

8 Natural Brightening Alternatives to Hydroquinone

Hoping to lighten up scarring, freckles or dark spots on your skin? You may have heard that hydroquinone—a brightening agent—is strong enough to get the job done. And while it’s true that it’s a powerful ingredient, the Food and Drug Administration has banned the sale of over-the-counter hydroquinone due to rising concerns over side effects from its use.

Why You Should Consider Natural Lighteners for Dark Spots

Chemical brightening agents like hydroquinone work by blocking key enzymes along the melanin (pigment) producing pathway in the body. Since as early as 2006, researchers have been questioning the safety of hydroquinone because users were at risk for developing ochronosis, a condition that (ironically) darkens the skin.

“Hydroquinone is one of the most researched and studied lightening agents, but can cause severe irritation and hyperpigmentation if not used correctly,” explains Dr. Michele Green, a board-certified dermatologist and RealSelf contributor in New York City. Those side effects were enough for the ingredient to be banned in  Europe, Japan, Australia and now the United States.

“Safety concerns have been limiting the use of hydroquinone, pushing the prevalence of hydroquinone-free lightening agents,” notes Dr. Robin Evans, a board-certified dermatologist in Stamford, CT. “These products can help with brightening, smoothing the skin and exfoliating. They can also help with pigmentary concerns like melasma,” she adds.

The Best Natural Skin Brighteners

If you’re ready to try a new wave of natural skin brighteners, consider the following dermatologist-approved ingredients.

  1. Kojic Acid
    $98.00 Buy now with Dermstore

    Kojic Acid

    Kojic acid is derived from mushroom-like fungi during fermentation and is the second most common natural lightening agent, Dr. Green says. “It prohibits the production of melanin and penetrates the upper layers of the skin, causing a lightening effect.”

    You can find kojic acid in serums and depigmentation creams. Note, it can cause some side effects like redness and irritation. Always use a low-dose (1 percent) version and test it on a small patch of your skin first before using regularly.

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  2. Niacinamide
    $154.00 Buy now with Dermstore

    Niacinamide

    Niacinamide, or vitamin B3, is a gentle yet powerful skin care ingredient that offers a multitude of benefits. As Dr. Green explains, “During the process of skin pigmentation, melanin is synthesized by skin cells called melanocytes. The melanin that is produced is transferred inside particles called melanosomes, to skin cells called keratinocytes. Keratinocytes store the melanin and use it as a protective shield for the cell DNA against UV rays. Niacinamide helps reduce hyperpigmentation, brightening the skin by inhibiting the transfer of melanosomes from melanocytes to keratinocytes.”

    What’s more, she says, it is extremely stable and not affected by heat or light like other chemical ingredients. Niacinamide is found in serums and boosters that are usually considered safe to use daily.

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  3. Vitamin C
    $133.00 Buy now with Dermstore

    Vitamin C

    Vitamin C is another popular brightening alternative found in many brightening serums. “Vitamin C is an amazing antioxidant that is beneficial for patients with hyperpigmentation,” explains Dr. Green. “It works by brightening hyperpigmented spots on the skin, but not lightening normal skin.”

    Dr. Green says to avoid vitamin C if you have allergies or sensitive skin since it can cause redness, irritation and tingling.

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  4. Arbutin
    $65.00 Buy now with Dermstore

    Arbutin

    According to Dr. Green, “Arbutin is a natural form of hydroquinone derived from the bearberry plant. It is a safer and effective alternative to hydroquinone and is less cytotoxic to the melanocytes.” Use it gradually during the first few weeks to make sure your skin doesn’t react. You can then increase the frequency of use. Also, as always, make sure you are wearing sunscreen.

    Even though it’s considered natural, avoid arbutin if you are pregnant because it is a derivative of hydroquinone, notes Dr. Evans.

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  5. Willow-Bark Extract
    $145.00 Buy now with Dermstore

    Willow-Bark Extract

    “Willow bark extract is a beta hydroxy acid that helps to exfoliate the skin and encourage cell turnover,” Dr. Evans says. That’s because it’s related to salicylic acid, Dr. Green adds. “White willow-bark extract is composed of salicin, the natural form of salicylic acid,” she says. “Salicylic acid helps to shed dead skin cells from your skin to allow new and healthy skin cells to regenerate.”

    You can find willow-bark extract in spot treatments, serums and exfoliating peels. Products like spot treatments can be used daily, while exfoliating peels should only be used once or twice a week.

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  6. Licorice
    $56.00 Buy now with Dermstore

    Licorice

    “Licorice root contains two ingredients that help with pigmentation: glabridin and liquiritin,” explains Dr. Green. “Glabridin helps to retrain tyrosinase, an enzyme that produces melanin, which leads to pigmentation. Liquiritin helps to break up and remove melanin and pigmentation in the skin.”

    In addition to tackling dark spots, licorice can be soothing and help even out your skin tone. Look for it in products like serums and use daily for best results.

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  7. Mulberry Extract
    $117.00 Buy now with Dermstore

    Mulberry Extract

    Mulberry extract is a natural but powerful brightening agent derived from the mulberry plant, notes Dr. Erum Ilyas, a board-certified dermatologist and founder of Amber Noon in Pennsylvania. “Mulberry plants have several compounds that have been extracted from both roots and stems, with known ability to block tyrosinase, the enzyme involved in the production of a skin pigment called melanin,” she adds.

    Some studies have shown mulberry extract to be as powerful as kojic acid (see above)—another common natural brightener. If your skin doesn’t agree with kojic acid or is sensitive, Dr. Ilyas says that mulberry extract is generally well tolerated and won’t likely cause irritation.

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  8. Lactic Acid
    $92.00 Buy now with Dermstore

    Lactic Acid

    If you have sensitive skin or are just looking for something mild, products containing lactic acid may be what you need. “Lactic acid is derived from sour milk and is an alpha hydroxy acid, so it is one of the mildest ingredients you can use for skin lightening,” Dr. Green says. “Gentle enough for sensitive skin, lactic acid penetrates the skin, causing mild exfoliation. It’s also a melanin suppressor.”

    She notes that because it decreases your melanin production, you should wear sunscreen and protective clothing to shield the treated areas from sun damage.

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Beauty Reporter

Jane Chertoff

Jane is a freelance lifestyle writer whose work has appeared on Brit + Co, Romper, HelloGiggles, Yahoo Health, Realtor.com and more. She is a marathon runner, dog lover and aspiring world traveler. Check out more of her work here and follow her on Instagram.